Insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different result. For years we have applied industrial-strength unilateral and multilateral sanctions in an attempt to force North Korea to denuclearize. We have also urged China – North Korea’s neighbor and largest trading partner – to use its unique leverage to halt Kim Jong Un’s provocations, which also threaten China.
But neither strategy is working. North Korea continues to make progress in testing ballistic missiles and bombs and possibly even in miniaturizing warheads.
Six months after the implementation of harsh new sanctions under U.N. Security Council Resolution 2270, North Korea remains defiant. While few expected the sanctions to work overnight, the timeline for any results will be even longer than most anticipate. Sanctions are uniquely ineffective against North Korea. Since the Korean War, the country has faced sanctions-like conditions restricting its access to markets, international financial institutions, and advanced goods and technologies. It became extremely adept at living under these conditions.
Throughout this period, North Korea has also essentially self-sanctioned. Its leaders have chosen economic isolation over integration into the global economy. To maintain their freedom of action, they didn’t even integrate into the socialist economic bloc. They muddle through by mobilizing indigenous human and material resources and, when things really get bad, letting a segment of the population perish.
The effectiveness of sanctions is also limited because of China’s protection. Chinese leaders recognize that their economic leverage over North Korea is a double-edged sword, because sustained pressure could lead to state and societal collapse, precipitating a flood of refugees into northeast China. The collapse of North Korea could also lead to a unified, U.S.-allied Korea on China’s border – which China perceives as a worse outcome than a nuclear North Korea serving as a buffer state.
Besides, U.S. analysts of North Korea have long exaggerated the submissiveness of Pyongyang to Beijing. Communist-bloc documents obtained by the Wilson Center suggest that over many decades, North Korea has perceived China as intrusive and disrespectful of Korean sovereignty. Expecting China to influence North Korean policies means asking China to do precisely what North Korea most resents. Chinese officials recognized that complying with the West’s wishes would only antagonize North Korea further.
Our timelines are simply out of sync. It will take far too long for sanctions to persuade North Korea’s leaders to complete verifiable and irreversible dismantlement as a prerequisite for talks, and we also can’t expect China to use all of the cards in its deck. To do so, we would have to demonstrate some flexibility. The lesson North Korea’s leaders learned from the Iraq War and NATO
Source : Washington Post
Jane Harman, president and chief executive of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, served in the House of Representatives (D-Calif.) from 1993 to 2011. James Person is coordinator of the Hyundai Motor-Korea Foundation Center for Korean History and Public Policy at the Wilson Center